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Balancing your Immune System Naturally.

For a great antioxidant one that eases the effects of stress and helps the body recover from it's destructive damage at the cellular level there isn't a better natural product that is so easy to take than our Wildcrafted Siberian Chaga mushroom. Our Chaga is very potent with over 215 nutrients the Cadillac of the medicinal herbs which I don't think can be matched by any other herbal product available to balance the human body naturally and for that matter some of your pet's bodies also.

Just look at the studies. Do you need energy? Does your skin need help from both inside and out? Well Chaga can help. Not to mention the anti-cancer effects with apoptosis the natural cell death of normal cells which you can read about on another page.   


Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus.     

J Ethnopharmacol.  2005; 96(1-2):79-85 (ISSN: 0378-8741)

Cui Y ; Kim DS ; Park KC
Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University, Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-Dong, Bundang-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Kyoungki-Do 463-707, Republic of Korea.

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic extract had a strong antioxidant activity, and the extract containing triterpenoids and steroids presented a relatively strong antioxidant effect. The polysaccharide extract, however, was inactive. The protective effects of these four extracts were assessed against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress using a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Our results show that the polyphenolic extract protected these cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, while the polysaccharide, triterpenoid and steroid extracts were ineffective. Additionally, the remnant polyphenolic and low molecular weight polysaccharide extracts showed a weakly protective effect at a concentration of 50 microg/ml. Our results indicate that Inonotus obliquus has the capacity to scavenge free radicals at concentrations higher than 5 microg/ml and that the polyphenolic extract can protect cells against oxidative stress.

  • PreMedline Identifier: 15588653

    Kim YO ; Han SB ; Lee HW ; Ahn HJ ; Yoon YD ; Jung JK ; Kim HM ; Shin CS
    Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, Shinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749, South Korea.

    Inonotus obliquus BELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. After a batch fermentation of I. obliquus BELYU1102 was carried out in a 300 l pilot vessel, endo-polysaccharide and exo-polysaccharide were both obtained. The proliferation activity of endo-polysaccharide for splenic cells was much higher than the activity of exo-polysaccharide. The active endo-polysaccharide was produced primarily during the late stationary phase. Enhanced proliferation and polyclonal IgM antibody production were observed in B cells by purified water-soluble endo-polysaccharide. Nitrite production and expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and iNOS in macrophages were also enhanced. However, the endo-polysaccharide did not affect the proliferation of T cells, the IL-2 expression of Th1 cells, or the IL-4 expression of Th2 cells. The endo-polysaccharide showed activities similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for B cells and macrophages, but there was a large difference between the two polysaccharides because cellular activations induced by endo-polysaccharide were not affected by polymyxin B, a specific inhibitor of LPS. The endo-polysaccharide appeared to have other cellular binding sites with TLR-4 and did not show a direct toxicity against tumor cells. However, indirect anti-cancer effects via immuno-stimulation were observed. The mycelial endo-polysaccharide of I. obliquus is a candidate for use as an immune response modifier. Submerged mycelial cultures are advantageous for industrial production of polysaccharides.

    • PreMedline Identifier: 15970296

     

    Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.

    Life Sci.  2006; 79(1):72-80 (ISSN: 0024-3205)

    Kim YO ; Park HW ; Kim JH ; Lee JY ; Moon SH ; Shin CS
    Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, Shinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749, South Korea.

    The endo-polysaccharide extracted from mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. (Hymenochaetaceae) is a specific activator of B cells and macrophages. However, the in vivo anti-cancer effects and the chemical structure of the endo-polysaccharide are unknown. We purified the endo-polysaccharide, investigated its anti-cancer effects via in vitro and in vivo assays, and performed a structural characterization. The endo-polysaccharide was extracted from I. obliquus mycelia cultivated in a 300-l pilot fermenter, followed by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Purification was achieved by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical analysis revealed that the purified endo-polysaccharide is an alpha-linked fucoglucomannan with a molecular weight of approximately 1,000 kDa. The anti-cancer activities of the endo-polysaccharide against various types of tumor cells were determined. No direct toxicity against either cancer or normal cells was observed. Intraperitoneal administration of the endo-polysaccharide significantly prolonged the survival rate of B16F10-implanted mice, resulting in a 4.07-fold increase in the survival rate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. After 60 days of feeding, approximately 67% of the initial number of mice survived with no tumor incidence based on macroscopic examination. These results indicate that the anti-cancer effect of endo-polysaccharide is not directly tumorcidal but rather is immuno-stimulating.

    • PreMedline Identifier: 16458328

    In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus.

    J Ethnopharmacol.  2005; 101(1-3):120-8 (ISSN: 0378-8741)

    Park YM ; Won JH ; Kim YH ; Choi JW ; Park HJ ; Lee KT
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung-Hee University, Dongdaemun-Ku, Hoegi-Dong, Seoul 130-701, South Korea.

    The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract from Inonotus obliquus (MEIO) in vivo and in vitro. MEIO (100 or 200 mg/(kgday), p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activity, as determined by an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. To reveal the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of MEIO, we examined its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. MEIO was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, MEIO potently inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, MEIO inhibited the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and this was associated with the prevention of inhibitor kappaB degradation and a reduction in nuclear p65 protein levels. Taken together, our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of MEIO may be due to the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB binding activity.

    • PreMedline Identifier: 15905055

     

    From Pubmed.com:

     

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Youn MJ, Kim JK, Park SY, Kim Y, Kim SJ, Lee JS, Chai KY, Kim HJ, Cui MX, So HS, Kim KY, Park R.

    Vestibulocochlear Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, #344-2, Shinyoung-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea.

    AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma.

    PMID: 18203281 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    Identification of a novel blocker of IkappaBalpha kinase activation that enhances apoptosis and inhibits proliferation and invasion by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB.

    Sung B, Pandey MK, Nakajima Y, Nishida H, Konishi T, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB.

    Cytokine Research Section, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 143, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) is a polyphenol derived from the medicinal plant Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat]. Although Chaga is used in Russia folk medicine to treat tumors, very little is known about its mechanism of action. Because most genes involved in inflammation, antiapoptosis, and cell proliferation are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), we postulated that DBL activity is mediated via modulation of the NF-kappaB activation pathway. We investigated the effects of DBL on NF-kappaB activation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and on NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression by Western blot analysis. We found that DBL suppressed NF-kappaB activation by a wide variety of inflammatory agents, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1beta, epidermal growth factor, okadaic acid, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and lipopolysaccharide. The suppression was not cell type specific and inhibited both inducible and constitutive NF-kappaB activation. DBL did not interfere with the binding of NF-kappaB to DNA but rather inhibited IkappaBalpha kinase activity, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and translocation. DBL also suppressed the expression of TNF-induced and NF-kappaB-regulated proliferative, antiapoptotic, and metastatic gene products. These effects correlated with enhancement of TNF-induced apoptosis and suppression of TNF-induced invasion. Together, our results indicate that DBL inhibits NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression, which may explain the ability of DBL to enhance apoptosis and inhibit invasion.

    PMID: 18202022 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    Lee IK, Kim YS, Jang YW, Jung JY, Yun BS.

    Functional Metabolites Research Center, KRIBB, 111 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea.

    The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated along with the known compounds, phelligridins D (4), E (5), and G (6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. These compounds exhibited significant scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and DPPH radical, and showed moderate activity against the superoxide radical anion.

    PMID: 17980585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    Antioxidant small phenolic ingredients in Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga).

    Nakajima Y, Sato Y, Konishi T.

    Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Science, Niigata, Japan.

    Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga, in Russia, kabanoanatake in Japan) is a fungus having been used as a folk medicine in Russia and said to have many health beneficial functions such as immune modulating and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of hot water extract (decoction) of Chaga was precisely compared with those of other medicinal fungi (Agaricus blazei Mycelia, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) showing Chaga had the strongest antioxidant activity among fungi examined in terms of both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities. Further determination of the antioxidant potential of isolated fruiting body (brown part) and Sclerotium (black part) revealed the 80% MeOH extract of fruiting body had the highest potential as high as that of Chaga decoction. Finally, seven antioxidant components were isolated and purified from the 80% MeOH extract of Chaga fruiting body, and their chemical structures were determined as small phenolics as follows: 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (BAEE), protocatechic acid (PCA), caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihybenzaladehyde (DB), 2,5-dihydroxyterephtalic acid (DTA), syringic acid (SA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL). Notably, BAEE was assigned as the new compound firstly identified from the natural source in the present study.

    PMID: 17666849 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    Structure determination of inonotsuoxides A and B and in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity of inotodiol from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus.

    Nakata T, Yamada T, Taji S, Ohishi H, Wada S, Tokuda H, Sakuma K, Tanaka R.

    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan.

    Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsuoxides A (1) and B (2) along with three known lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), and lanosterol (5), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) (Japanese name: Kabanoanakake) (Russian name: Chaga). Their structures were determined to be 22R,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (1) and 22S,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (2) on the basis of spectral data including single crystal X-ray analysis. These compounds except for 2 were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), as a test for potential cancer chemopreventive agents. The most abundant triterpene, inotodiol (3), was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 3 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test.

    PMID: 17049251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Reversal of the TPA-induced inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts: effects on MAP kinases.

    Park JR, Park JS, Jo EH, Hwang JW, Kim SJ, Ra JC, Aruoma OI, Lee YS, Kang KS.

    Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tumor Biology, Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine and BK 21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Sillim 9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has continued to receive attention as a folk medicine with indications for the treatment of cancers and digestive diseases. The anticarcinogenic effect of Chaga mushroom extract was investigated using a model system of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 normal rat liver epithelial cells. The cells were pre-incubated with Chaga mushroom extracts (5, 10, 20 microg/ml) for 24 h and this was followed by co-treatment with Chaga mushroom extracts and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 10 ng/ml) for 1 h. The inhibition of GJIC by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), promoter of cancer, was prevented with treatment of Chaga mushroom extracts. Similarly, the increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 protein kinases were markedly reduced in Chaga mushroom extracts-treated cells. There was no change in the JNK kinase protein level, suggesting that Chaga mushroom extracts could only block the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. The Chaga mushroom extracts further prevented the inhibition of GJIC through the blocking of Cx43 phosphorylation. Indeed cell-to-cell communication through gap junctional channels is a critical factor in the life and death balance of cells because GJIC has an important function in maintaining tissue homeostasis through the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and adaptive functions of differentiated cells. Thus Chaga mushroom may act as a natural anticancer product by preventing the inhibition of GJIC through the inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase.

    PMID: 17012771 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

     

    Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay.

    Park YK, Lee HB, Jeon EJ, Jung HS, Kang MH.

    Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyunghee University, 1 Hoekidong, Dongdaemoonku, Seoul 130-701, South Korea.

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/mL) of the extract for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were then treated with 100 microM of H2O2 for 5 min as an oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative damage was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Using image analysis, the degree of DNA damage was evaluated as the DNA tail moment. Cells pretreated with Chaga extract showed over 40% reduction in DNA fragmentation compared with the positive control (100 micromol H2O2 treatment). Thus, Chaga mushroom treatment affords cellular protection against endogenous DNA damage produced by H2O2.

    PMID: 15630179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of dry matter of culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on normal and alloxan-diabetes mice.

    Sun JE, Ao ZH, Lu ZM, Xu HY, Zhang XM, Dou WF, Xu ZH.

    Lab of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, PR China.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of the dry matter of culture broth (DMCB) of Inonotus obliquus were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The normal, glucose-induced hyperglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of the DMCB of Inonotus obliquus. RESULTS: Treatment with the DMCB (500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight) exhibited a mild hypoglycemic effect in normal mice, and failed to reduce the peak glucose levels after glucose administration. However, euglycemia was achieved in the DMCB of Inonotus obliquus (1000 mg/kg) and glibenclamide-treated mice after 120 min of glucose loading. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the DMCB (500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 days) showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level, the percentages reduction on the 7th day were 11.90 and 15.79%, respectively. However, feeding of this drug for 3 weeks produced reduction was 30.07 and 31.30%. Furthermore, the DMCB treatment significantly decreased serum contents of free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), whereas effectively increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin level and hepatic glycogen contents in liver on diabetic mice. Besides, the DMCB treatment significantly increased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities except for decreasing maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level in diabetic mice. Histological morphology examination showed that the DMCB restored the damage of pancreas tissues in mice with diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the DMCB of Inonotus obliquus possesses significant antihyperglycemic, antilipidperoxidative and antioxidant effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PMID: 18434051 [PubMed - in process]

     

    Lanostane-type triterpenoids from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus possessing anti-tumor promoting activity.

    Taji S, Yamada T, Wada SI, Tokuda H, Sakuma K, Tanaka R.

    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan.

    Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, 1 and 2 besides two known lanostane-type triterpenoids, 3 and 4 were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be lanosta-8,23E-diene-3beta,22R,25-triol (1) and lanosta-7:9(11),23E-triene-3beta,22R,25-triol (2) by spectral data. These compounds were tested for their anti-tumor-promoting activity using a short-term in vitro assay for EBV-EA activation induced by TPA. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 were stronger than the positive control, oleanolic acid. The most abundant compound 4 was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 4 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test.

    PMID: 18387711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

     

     

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